Nombre Oscar Javier Robayo Pinzón
Nombre del perfíl Disciplinar - Grupos de investigación
Grupo de investigación Mercadeo I+2
Línea de investigación Generación Y Medición Estratégica Del Valor
Equipo del proyecto
Oscar Javier Robayo PinzónLíder
Luz Alexandra Montoya RestrepoInvestigador
Sandra Patricia Rojas BerríoInvestigador
TÍTULO DEL PROYECTO Consumer Behaviour Analysis Applied to Mobile Marketing
PALABRAS CLAVE Management Science, Marketing, Consumer Behaviour, Mobile Marketing, Behavioural Perspective Model
OBJETIVOS DEL PROYECTO The general objective consist on establish what functional relationships exists between the consumption pattern of mobile marketing tactics under different contextual conditions and different levels of utilitarian and informational reinforcement. The following specific objectives are also proposed:
Identifying indicators and metrics for the use of mobile marketing tactics, from the literature review and a panel of industry experts.
Describe the usage patterns of mobile marketing tactics in different contexts, including advertising, promotions, location based communications and mobile shopping apps.
Establish the functional relationships between the consumption patterns of mobile marketing tactics under different contextual conditions and different levels of utilitarian and informational reinforcement.
PERTINENCIA ESPISTEMOLÓGICA DEL PROYECTO Among the advantages offered by the use of mobile devices, there is the possibility of having a real consumer identity. This is due to the personal character smartphones have and to the possibility of getting contextual information regarding user’s behaviours in different places, even in real time. This has generated research lines in management sciences, in particular about topics that include mobile advertising, promotions, customer support (Varnali & Toker, 2010), mobile shopper marketing (Shankar et al., 2016), mobile interface usability (Venkatesh, Thong, and Xu 2012), customer preferences, and decision-making (Pescher, Reichhart, & Spann, 2014), among others.
The current importance of the mobile channel is given by the time users spend interacting with applications and web browsing on these devices. It is estimated that about half of the searches performed on Google is being carried out from mobile devices (Graham, 2015). This new consumer reality provides a setting for organizations to develop and invest in mobile marketing campaigns that adapt to new patterns of behaviour in terms of web browsing and apps usage. According to Berman (2016), these conditions include: 1. Mobile devices are always on, most of them has mobile internet connection and are always where the user is located; 2. The possibility to generate marketing activities from the geographical location of users at any given time; and 3. The ability to design and send personalized messages according to the pattern of use and previous consumer preferences.
However, there is still the need to perform more research from a theoretical perspective about digital consumer behaviour issues, in order to support decision-making in organisational and management science, specifically those related to the marketing function.
RELEVANCIA DEL PROYECTO PARA LA INSTITUCIÓN Y PARA LOS BENEFICIARIOS DEL PROYECTO In particular, this project seeks to contribute to the study of some of the priority topics proposed by the Marketing Science Institute (MSI, 2016), among which are: Changing Decision Processes, given the fact that consumers are almost always connected and have many more options to compare; Integrated Customer Experiences, as firms are challenged to design experiences that their customers have at different touch points to provide higher value in the right time and context; New Data and Skills, as there is a feeling related to the old methods are not working properly, and that a reformulation is required for some indicators and metrics, leading to the synthesis of different methods that provide insights that lead to effective action in marketing.
PROBLEMA DE INVESTIGACIÓN The study of mobile marketing has been characterized so far to address the mechanisms of adoption and use of mobile technologies, because unlike desktop computer, and even laptop, mobile devices are considered as personal items of private use, which suggests that consumers have a very particular attitudes toward mobile communication compared to traditional media such as print, radio or television (Park, Shenoy and Salvendy, 2008).
For over a decade the potential benefits of mobile marketing has been observed, through the development of promotions, event marketing or experiential marketing, sending relevant content and relational marketing actions, all based on the properties of real-time connectivity and various forms of interaction that allows mobile platforms (Zoller, 2003). However, since that time some potential risks that mobile marketing should face during its development were also mentioned. These relate mainly to sending unwanted messages, known as spam, and management of personal information and other aspects related to user privacy (Tsang et al. 2004).
Throughout this process, mobile marketing has become for companies in a two-way or multi-way communication tool, in order to create closer connections with customers. The increase in the penetration of mobile devices combined with the fast growth of market applications has made companies want to accelerate the incorporation of these tools into their mix of marketing tactics, seeking thereby to maintain a high level of competitiveness (Sultan and Rohm, 2005; Shankar and Malthouse, 2007; Shankar and Balasubramanian, 2009).
The rate of evolution of these mobile communication technologies has been so rapid that the initial tools such as text messages (SMS) have given way to a wide variety of possibilities offered by Smartphone. Some authors suggest a very promising future for mobile platforms as a new alternative to strengthen the connection between brands and their consumers, particularly younger ones, due to the development of platforms based on 3G and 4G technologies. (Wang, 2009).
New tactics take advantage of attributes such as larger screen size and resolution, the possibility of web browsing and the option to download and use thousands of apps, all of which is the opportunity to develop new mechanisms of interaction with customers (Persaud and Azhar, 2012). It has also raised the possibility that mobile marketing can increase the perceived value of customers. Statements such as "always with customers" or "always on device", have been subjects of research on the possible link between the perception of value and marketing actions in the context of mobile communication (Varnali and Toker, 2010).
Although there is a significant amount of literature on mobile marketing, still it has not been consolidated agreement on its definition (Varnali and Toker, 2010; Leppäniemi, Sinisalo, and Karjaluoto, 2006). The Mobile Marketing Association (MMA, 2008) defines mobile marketing as "the set of practices that enables organizations to communicate and engage with their audience in an interactive and relevant manner through any network or mobile device". Some later definitions by some scholars, give it a more specific role. For example, Shankar and Balasubramanian (2009) define mobile marketing as "communication and promotion of double or multiple pathways between a company and its customers using a medium, device or mobile technology".
Moreover, Scharl, Dickinger, & Murphy (2005, p. 125) refer to mobile marketing as "the use of a wireless means to provide consumers personalized information in real time, sensitive to geographical location, which seeks promote a good, service or idea, bringing benefits to all stakeholders ".More interesting is the fact that have been used at least four different terms to try to refer to the concept of marketing made through mobile means. Among these are the following: mobile marketing, mobile advertising, wireless marketing and wireless advertising (Dehkordi et al., 2012).
The above definitions implies that its nature is primarily interactive, and can include advertising activities, promotion, and customer service, among other actions seeking to build long-term relationships with consumers. These marketing activities have been gaining importance in the changing competitive environment that organizations face today (Bolton and Shruti-Saxena, 2009). Despite this, the research interest has focused on mobile e-commerce, particularly in the role of technology in the growth of transactions via mobile devices.
Mobile marketing research is only in its emergence stage, and although existing studies have provided some useful results, several aspects are still being developed on theoretical and empirical level (Deighton and Kornfeld, 2009). In this new field of academic research, one of the main approaches was aimed at examining a variety of factors that can influence the acceptance of mobile marketing from the perspective of both consumers and organizations (Roach, 2009). However, literature shows a high fragmentation in terms of the issues addressed. One of the main aspects has focused on the study of acceptance and consumer adoption of mobile services in general, such as multimedia messaging and online games (Foulds and Burton, 2006).
Another field of study, perhaps more specific, has been directed to investigate the attitudes and perceptions of consumers towards commercial applications and marketing on mobile devices (Carroll et al., 2007; Leppäniemi and Karjaluoto, 2005). Moreover, in one hand there is no evidence in the literature of studies that have focused on the usage patterns of mobile marketing tactics and the establishment of functional relationships between contextual factors, usage behaviours and utilitarian and informational reinforcement changes. On the other hand, there is a lack of studies that deepen in that kind of technological mediation, and its role in management science.
In order to do this, in this project it will keep into account the purchase and usage behaviour within a set of mobile apps and mobile marketing tactics. In addition, it will consider the results of researches carried out during several decades by authors like Ehrenberg (1972-1988) that show there are certain regularities and consistent purchase patterns that come from data analysis, collected through consumer panels that range from months to a year. Here, the Behavioural Perspective Model (BPM) (Foxall, 2002) and Relational Frame Theory (Hayes et al., 2001) can provide us with an additional interpretation within this important area of research for marketing nowadays.
The Behavioural Perspective Model (BPM) (Foxall et al., 2007) states that most of the consumer behaviour can be explained reliably if the functional relationships are established between the environmental consequences and buying behaviours, issue that was validated in the colombian context by Robayo and Ortegón (2013).
From that point of view, this project aims to investigate the functional relationships there are among different behavioural classes, context factors, and precedent elements as well as their consequences in the mobile marketing environment. In particular, the following question is going to be addressed:
¿What is the functional relationship between the consumption pattern of mobile marketing tactics under different contextual conditions and different levels of utilitarian and informational reinforcement?
METODOLOGÍA At methodological level, it will keep into account the answers of the consumers from a temporary wider perspective because these interactions could have effects that are hard to notice with only one measurement (Foxall, 2005; Oliveira-Castro, Foxall, & Schrezenmaier, 2006). For this reason, it will develop longitudinal techniques that enable recording consumer’s behavioural data occurred in mobile platforms (Drew & Berney, 2015; Sandoval, Pinzón, Rincón, & Cortés, 2009). This may include exposure to advertising, promotional, and client support strategies as well as answers (clicks, reviews, and commercial transactions, among others) and social interactions distributed through time (Stephen, 2016.). Other performance metrics of mobile marketing actions found in the literature include bounce rates, add to cart rates, shopping cart abandonment and completion rates (Berman, 2016). To define with greater validity the set of variables to be measured, a panel of experts including participants from academia and industry will be held.
In order to gather data from the consumer consumption and usage occasions of both internet navigation and apps usage, a tracking app will be developed, and it is expected that a sample of opted-in panellists who consent to sharing their behavioural data download it, accepting the terms and conditions to start sharing (Drew & Berney, 2015). The necessary measures are taken to ensure the confidentiality of personal information from users. Thus, a consumer panel methodology will be applied with a sample of consumers from Bogotá and other cities in Colombia for a period ranging from six months to one year (Crouch & Housden, 2003; Wansink & Sudman, 2002).
In addition to this, as part of the panel, a monthly survey will be applied via mobile, in order to perform a measure of the variables related to the possible consequences both utilitarian and informational associated with usage behaviors to be defined from the literature review and the results of the experts panel. (Robayo & Ortegón, 2013). Participants will include both men and women, owners of smartphone devices, with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years.
For each of the categories of mobile marketing to be defined (promotions, coupons, mobile advertising, in-app purchases, among others), the performance measures will be calculated (Fagerstrøm, Arntzen, & Foxall, 2011; Wells & Foxall, 2013), according to the amount of time allocated on web pages and apps used and also the amount of money spent on shopping. Therefore, the market size could be estimated from the number of downloads, usage time, clicks on ads, and the traditional way, through the money invested in web transactions as well as in-app purchases. (Cavalcanti, Oliveira-Castro, & Foxall, 2013; Wells, 2014).
Furthermore, regression analysis and other multivariate analysis will be performed in order to establish the functional relationships between behaviour, contextual elements and different levels of reinforcement, both utilitarian and informational.
RESULTADOS ESPERADOS Proceeding Submited to CLADEA 2017
Published Article at: Journal of Interactive Marketing
Proceeding Submited to BALAS 2018
Published Article at: International Journal of Mobile Marketing
Proceeding Submited to: IEEE International Conference on BIGDATA Analysis (ICBDA - 2019)
1. Published Article at: International Journal of Mobile Marketing
2. Doctoral Thesis
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Apropiación Social del ConocimientoCLADEA 2017Robayo, O. Montoya, L., Rojas, S.Digital marketing practitioners, consumer behaviour academics, IUPG´s academic communityProceeding on Literature Review and Project Formulation
Nuevo Conocimiento ó I+DJournal of Interactive MarketingRobayo, O. Montoya, L., Rojas, S.Digital marketing practitioners, consumer behaviour academics, IUPG´s academic communityPublished Article
Apropiación Social del ConocimientoBALAS 2018Robayo, O. Montoya, L., Rojas, S.Digital marketing practitioners, consumer behaviour academics, IUPG´s academic communityProceeding on Second Specific Objective – First Part
Nuevo Conocimiento ó I+DInternational Journal of Mobile MarketingRobayo, O. Montoya, L., Rojas, S.Digital marketing practitioners, consumer behaviour academics, IUPG´s academic communityPublished Article
Apropiación Social del ConocimientoIEEE International Conference on BIGDATA Analysis (ICBDA - 2019)Robayo, O. Montoya, L., Rojas, S.Digital marketing practitioners, consumer behaviour academics, IUPG´s academic communityProceeding on Second Specific Objective – Second Part
Nuevo Conocimiento ó I+DInternational Journal of Mobile MarketingRobayo, O. Montoya, L., Rojas, S.Digital marketing practitioners, consumer behaviour academics, IUPG´s academic communityPublished Article
Actividad Literature Review and Project Formulation Feb 2017 Jun 2017
Entregable Proceeding Submited to CLADEA 2017 Jul 2017 Dic 2017
Entregable Published Article at: Journal of Interactive Marketing Jul 2017 Dic 2017
Entregable Proceeding Submited to BALAS 2018 Feb 2018 Dic 2018
Entregable Published Article at: International Journal of Mobile Marketing Feb 2019 Jun 2019
Entregable Proceeding Submited to: IEEE International Conference on BIGDATA Analysis (ICBDA - 2019) Jul 2019 Dic 2019
Entregable Published Article at: International Journal of Mobile Marketing Ene 2020 Dic 2020